What is Fog Computing?

I read an interesting article on Fog Computing and thought readers might like a short precis:

Applications such as health-monitoring or emergency response require near-instantaneous response such that the delay caused by contacting and receiving data from a cloud data-centre can be highly problematic. Fog Computing is a response to this challenge. The basic idea is to shift some of the computing from the data-centre to devices which are closer to the edge of the network – so moving the cloud to the ground (hence “fog computing”). The computing work is shared between the data-centre and various local IoT devices (e.g. a local router or smart-gateway).

“Fog computing is a paradigm for managing a highly distributed and possibly virtualized environment that provides compute and network services between sensors and cloud data-centers” (Dastjerdi et al. 2016)

While cloud computing (using large data-centres) is perfect for analysis of Big Data “at rest” (i.e.  analysing historical trends where large magnitudes of data are required and cheap processing necessary) fog computing may be much better for dynamic analysis of “data-in-motion” (data concerning immediate ongoing actions which require rapid analytical response).  For example an Augmented Reality Application cannot wait for a distant data-centre to respond when a user’s head it turned. Similarly safety-critical and business-critical applications such as health-care remote monitoring, or remote diagnostics cannot rely on permanent availability of internet connections (as those in York know when floods knocked out their internet for days this year).

Privacy concerns are also relevant. By moving data-analysis to the edge of the network (e.g. a device or local mobile phone) which is often owned by, and controlled by, the data-source the user may have more control over their data. For example an exercise tracker might aggregate and process its GPS data and fitness data on a local mobile phone rather than automatically uploading it to a distant server. It might also undertake data-trimming so reducing the bandwidth and load on the cloud. This is particularly relevant as the number of connected devices increases to billions. This gain should be balanced with the challenge of managing an increasing number of devices which must be secured to hold sensitive data safely.

Another challenge is the climatic damage this new architecture poses. While data-centres are increasingly efficient in their processing, and often rely on clean-energy sources, moving computing to less efficient devices at the edge of the network might create a problem. We are effectively balancing latency with CO2 production.

For more information on see:

Dastjerdi, A. V., Gupta, H., Calheiros, R. N., Ghosh, S. K., and Buyya, R. 2016. “Fog Computing: Principles, Architectures, and Applications,” in Internet of Things: Principles and Paradigm. Elsevier / MKP. http://www.buyya.com/papers/FogComputing2016.pdf

(Image Ian Furst (cc))

Netskope’s approach to Shadow IT security.

On Wednesday last week I attended “Cloud Expo Europe” at London’s Excel centre. One of particularly interesting product was Netskope (also a finalists in the UK Cloud Awards) who are addressing the challenge of ShadowIT – employees use of cloud-services which are not sanctioned by the corporate IT departments.

According to Accenture (2013) “78% of cloud procurement comes from Strategic Business Units (SBUs), and only 28% from centralized IT functions”. Without some form of control the data-protection and compliance challenges of this can prove a huge. Users are also poorly skilled in making rational decisions about the safety of company data and products like Netskope address this by examining fire-wall logs or running Proxy servers and providing an easy interface so IT departments can enforce cloud access policies. The product analyses users’ access patterns and sends alerts, encrypts content on upload, blocks cloud transactions and quarantines content for review by Legal or IT. It essentially monitors and stops employees doing anything risky.

For me, the value of this product is the database of different cloud services with detailed information as to their safety and compliance. The product is however also really frustrating. At its heart is the assumption that the job of the IT professional is to monitor, control and police employees. This puts IT in opposition to the other business functions. Why couldn’t this product have instead started from a different assumption – that employees are, mostly, just trying to do their work as efficiently as possible. While a few are bad, most are just ignorant to the risks. Netskope would have been fantastic if it instead helped reduce this ignorance rather than policing users’ failures.  Had it provided an employee-portal to allow employees to evaluate cloud services prior to adoption it would have promoted the effective use of them, and allowed users to make rational decisions on their adoption. The IT department would be in a facilitation role rather than a policing role, and employees would feel in control (rather than in fear). The safety would be just the same (with Netskope policing policy) but with users feeling part of that effort. Productivity gains might also be achieved as users are freed to try using new valuable IT services knowing they were doing it safely and with management approval.

This isn’t to criticise Netskope for what it does do – but to call upon new approaches to thinking about the role of IT and the CIO in this cloud-future.

Strategy Security in the cloud – comments on Athens Cloud Computing Conference

Stefan Riepl - Thanks CC

Attending the Cloud Computing Conference in Athens today I was struck by the overarching interest of the audience in security. This is entirely understandable, and certainly should be the primary concern for IT directors whose overarching concern is to keep the company safe in this dangerous digital world. As fellow speaker Ian Murphy discussed – Hacking is available “as a service” today and for little money hackers can be directed towards any organisation whose security protocols are substandard.This point was reiterated by Amar Singh.

What worries me though is that organisational strategy is not also considered a significant security concern in the face of the cloud.  For me IT directors should be taking a primary position in considering the strategic risks to their organisation from cloud-based services ripping the heart out of their business. Without considering how the business model of a business might be undermined by cloud based digital services companies look like the vacuum-valve or Cathod-Ray-Tube manufacturer obsessing about whether their product can be stolen in production and delivery!

My rather random list of possible risks would include.

1) Disintermediation – Don Tapscott discussed many years ago how intermediation business can be lost as customers circumvent or replicate intermediary business and go direct. Cloud provides the simple tools to create this type of business.

2) Cost Collapse – Many businesses rely on cost inhibiting entry into marketplaces. Automation, Cloud and Data-abundance, and PAYG infrastructure can collapse the cost of entering some of these marketplaces. An example of this is Animation where small studies can now produce full feature-films using cloud rendering services.In the future digital technology are likely to do the same to many other areas of business which are today considered capital intensive.

3) Globally local – Prior to Uber most people working in taxi services could not imagine that the value of their business would shift to include services provided from north america. Yet such platforms, by their intensive focus on value creation for users, and their creation of brokerage services radically change the business model.  Like Ebay, AirBnB, and Booking.com the creation of a dual-sided market… Read Eisenmann, T. R., G. Parker and M. W. V. Alstyne (2006). “Strategies for Two-Sided Markets.” Harvard Business Review(10). for more on this type of business model

4) Service Quality – Many existing companies struggle to respond to customers need. Using cloud services small businesses can emerge which provide much better ease of use and services by starting with a cloud-only strategy and uninhibited by the existing legacy IT.

This is just a rather random list – with time I will try to develop these ideas into something more coherent! I welcome readers contributions.

Double trouble – why cloud is a question of balance |My New Blog on Cloud Pro

I have been invited to Blog on CloudPro – don’t worry I will keep posting here as well – but if you want to read my first posting see:

Double trouble – why cloud is a question of balance | Cloud Pro.

Cloud sourcing and innovation: slow train coming? FREE JOURNAL ARTICLE

An article I wrote with Edgar Whitley and Leslie Willcocks for the journal Strategic Outsourcing has been awarded the “Outstanding paper of 2014” award. This means that the article is freely available from the following website (articles are usually $32 so quite a saving!). Please feel free to download a copy today:

Emerald Insight | Cloud sourcing and innovation: slow train coming?: A composite research study.


Purpose – Although cloud computing has been heralded as driving the innovation agenda, there is growing evidence that cloud computing is actually a “slow train coming”. The purpose of this paper is to seek to understand the factors that drive and inhibit the adoption of cloud computing, particularly in relation to its use for innovative practices.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on a composite research base including two detailed surveys and interviews with 56 participants in the cloud supply chain undertaken between 2010 and 2013. The insights from this data are presented in relation to set of antecedents to innovation and a cloud sourcing model of collaborative innovation.

Findings – The paper finds that while some features of cloud computing will hasten the adoption of cloud, and its use for innovative purposes by the enterprise, there are also clear challenges that need to be addressed before cloud can be adopted successfully. Interestingly, the analysis highlights that many of these challenges arise from the technological nature of cloud computing itself.

Research limitations/implications – The research highlights a series of factors that need to be better understood for the maximum benefit from cloud computing to be achieved. Further research is needed to assess the best responses to these challenges.

Practical implications – The research suggests that enterprises need to undertake a number of steps for the full benefits of cloud computing to be achieved. It suggests that collaborative innovation is not necessarily an immediate consequence of adopting cloud computing.

Originality/value – The paper draws on an extensive research base to provide empirically informed analysis of the complexities of adopting cloud computing for innovation.


BBC News – Microsoft ‘must release’ data held on Dublin server

The following news article – reported on the BBC but repeated elsewhere – is perhaps the most important issue for cloud computing today (particularly in the consumer space). Our post-Snowden world is being shaped by legal arguments in the USA which have profound implications for the use of global cloud services. If Microsoft is forced to hand over data from its Dublin data-centers then companies concerned about the US gaining access to their data will have to avoid US companies entirely. Watch this space!

BBC News – Microsoft ‘must release’ data held on Dublin server.